Squadron Leader Maurice Robinson’s United Nations Flag
16 July 2021
In 1978 the United Nations established the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), a peacekeeping mission aimed to oversee the withdrawal of Israeli forces which had occupied Southern Lebanon in support of the pro-Israel, Maronite forces fighting Palestinian and Pan-Arabist militia during the Lebanese Civil War. RNZAF Squadron Leader Maurice Robinson was assigned to UNIFIL as an observer based at Marwahin, a small town along the Lebanon-Israel border. While there, Maurice collected the numerous badges and patches that decorate this UN flag, recently donated to our collection. He acquired them from UNIFIL members from all over the world, including the former Soviet Union, with some badges featuring the mascot of the controversial 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Misha the Bear.
Tensions between the UN observers and pro-Israel militia groups were high with numerous incidents of armed militiamen raiding Maurice’s observation post, stealing both UN supplies and personal belongings. These raids escalated on 20 May 1980, when Maurice was abducted for allegedly making derogatory remarks about senior militia leaders and the involvement of non-Lebanese groups in Lebanese politics; allegations that Maurice and three other officers at his observation post vehemently denied. His abduction led to a brief standoff between the unarmed UN observers and the militia when another officer from his observation post followed the militiamen back to where they were holding Maurice and demanded his immediate release. The militia leader and the officer had a short scuffle, grappling over a weapon, which the militia leader had fired into the air several times. He threw a single punch at the UN officer striking him on the face, effectively ending the fight. The militia leader then turned on Maurice, brandishing his weapon and grabbing him by the throat before releasing him to the other UN officer.
In his after-action report, Maurice describes the event as a deliberate attempt to inflame tensions between pro-Israel forces and the UN observers, stating it “gave me the impression of being stage-managed” and that he believed the whole incident was designed to intimidate more than anything else. He suspected the gunfire was timed to coincide with radio transmissions from a nearby UN vehicle, giving those receiving the transmission a false sense of danger and that the violence directed to him and other UN personnel was half-hearted at best. Maurice’s ability to stay calm, collected and professional during the numerous raids on his observation post and his abduction helped deescalate these potentially dangerous situations and avoid a similar situation that occurred just a month earlier where two members of UNIFIL had been killed.
Albert Marsden – Political Commentator and Aircraft Engineer
11 June 2021
This engineering-inspired cartoon which recently came into our collection, was drawn by Albert Marsden, and shows his opinions of the political situation during the early years of World War Two. It features some witty commentary and caricatures of four major political leaders of the time in a format that Albert was very familiar with through his career as an aircraft inspector working for the Aeronautical Inspection Directorate. Depicted are Winston Churchill, Neville Chamberlain, Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler. Churchill features his often-present cigar, with a note that it is “to be replaced frequently” and stating “no reverse gear to be fitted” referring to Churchill’s well-known determination.
Churchill’s predecessor as Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain is annotated “note wide tolerance for peace work (check adjustment)” a reference to his attempts at securing peace in Europe during the 1930s. He also has “cancelled” written across the bottom of his picture noting Chamberlain’s resignation as Prime Minister in 1940.
Mussolini is depicted with Marsden’s unflattering appraisal of the Italian dictator, labelling his head as a “vacuum chamber” and his mouth as a “gas outlet”. His ear is labelled “bad ear (it Bardia)”, a mention of the first Allied military operation of the Western Desert campaign, the Battle of Bardia.
Hitler receives similar treatment with his ears marked “plugged” and his head “crank”. He describes Hitler’s distinctive moustache as a “black guard (for blowhole) chaplain type”. He also notes that Hitler can be “traced by odor”. Marsden suggests that each of the Axis leaders are “to be ground on Churchill grinder”.
Albert was born on 26 March 1888 in Christchurch where he later trained as a cabinet maker. In 1913 he travelled to England, working his passage as the ship’s carpenter aboard the Waimana, to further his studies at the London Polytechnic.
His aviation career started when he joined Vickers Limited as an aircraft engineer. He worked there building aircraft until he got a job as Chief Aircraft Inspector for the Aeronautical Inspection Directorate, inspecting all aircraft that were produced in Scotland for the Royal Flying Corps and later Royal Air Force. In 1939 he was sent to Canada as Chief Inspector of all aircraft being produced under contract for the RAF, later his responsibilities were expanded to include overseeing the aircraft production happening in the United States.
During the same year he was also awarded the honorary title of Air Commodore in recognition of his services to the RAF. He remained in Canada and the United States overseeing aircraft production throughout World War Two, returning to England in 1946 when he was appointed to the Order of the British Empire for his services to aviation. Albert retired from the Aeronautical Inspection Directorate in 1948, returning home to New Zealand with his wife Henrietta later in 1950. Albert passed away in June 1972 at the age of 84.
Rona McIndoe’s Radar Tokens
27 April 2021
Recently donated to the museum, these plastic counters may look like they are part of a board game, but they are actually part of the complex radar filtering system developed during World War Two. They were used by Sergeant (W) Ethel Rona McIndoe – known as Rona – in her role as a radar Filterer here in New Zealand. Working as part of a wider team, Rona’s job was to receive information from radar stations and observers as they detected aircraft, collating the information into its essential parts, namely direction, altitude, number and type of aircraft.
This information was plotted onto a map in the form of tracks comprised of counters like these that relate to specific details and was essential for ensuring information was accurate before it was acted upon. Once identification was confirmed, the aircraft could be designated friendly or hostile and the information then relayed to relevant Group and Sector command Operations Rooms. These tracks provided an everchanging picture of what was happening in the air. They also allowed operators to predict flight paths and potential targets of enemy raids, scrambling interceptions with increased accuracy and speed. Although this system was rarely used against an enemy in New Zealand it was used extensively, to decisive effect, in Europe during famous air battles like the Battle of Britain.
Rona joined the WAAF in March 1943 training as a Radar Plotter, serving at Wellington and Auckland throughout World War Two. She was discharged from the Air Force in 1946 but reenlisted as a reservist on the 28th of August 1954. Continuing in her Radar Plotter trade, she spent much of her time as a reservist training at the Chain Overseas Low Radar Unit 4 located at Piha, west of Auckland, with other territorial units and people undertaking their Compulsory Military Service. The station had been mothballed after World War Two but reactivated as a training facility in 1953, tracking RNZAF aircraft as they flew out of Whenuapai and assisting with navigation exercises by guiding them from the ground.
Rona left the Air Force on the 27th August 1957 upon completing her term of service. She was an active member of the Ex WAAF Association, attending many reunions over the years and was always proud of her service with the Air Force. In December 2019 Rona celebrated her 100th birthday, receiving several letters and cards, notably from the Queen, Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern, Governor-General Patsy Reddy, Auckland Mayor Phil Goff and Chief of Air Force Air Vice-Marshal Andrew Clark. Sadly, Rona passed away shortly after this celebration on the 25th of March 2020 at the age of 100 years and 3 months.
Wayne Molloy’s recruitment booklet
5 March 2021
Often it is something small that inspires us to great undertakings. Such was the case with this RNZAF “Aircraft Apprentice and Boy Entrants” recruitment information booklet recently donated to our collection.
Wayne “Blue” Molloy came across the booklet in 1965. Inspired, he joined the RNZAF as an apprentice instrument fitter and completed two and a half years of trade training at RAAF Wagga Wagga in Australia before returning to New Zealand. The large stack of binders seen here contain his precis and technical notes built up over his time at Wagga Wagga and kept as reference material while he was an instructor at No. 2 Technical Training School RNZAF. Wayne left the Air Force, at the rank of Warrant Officer in 1992, the booklet having inspired a career spanning 27 years!
Gordon Woodroofe’s escape clothing
3 November 2020
Among the recent new additions to the Museum’s collection is this set of clothing, belonging to Warrant Officer Gordon Woodroofe, the only New Zealand airman to successfully escape from a German Prisoner of War (POW) camp during World War Two.
Warrant Officer Gordon Woodroofe was captured after his Wellington bomber ditched in the North Sea on 11-12 September 1941.
While imprisoned in Stalag Luft III in July 1942, Gordon swapped identities with an Australian soldier. His new identity as an army private meant that he was eligible for a kommando (working party), which presented better escape opportunities than remaining in camp. He was transferred to Stalag VIIIB and in May 1943, escaped from a kommando near the Germany-Czechoslovakia border. He succeeded in walking and cycling all the way to the Austrian alps before being recaptured.
Undeterred by this failure, on 17 August 1944 Gordon escaped from another kommando, with German money, forged documents and civilian clothing, which he had acquired in exchange for cigarettes. Disguised as a free French foreign worker, Gordon travelled by train all the way through northeast Germany to the Baltic port of Wismar, his ability to speak German helping him along. In Wismar he was assisted by a group of Frenchmen to board a Swedish coal vessel. The sailors agreed to hide him under the cabin floor, and when the Gestapo came to do their routine inspection, they diverted their attention by bartering with them. When the ship docked in neutral Sweden, Gordon made his way to the nearest police station, and after receiving a brand new passport, was conducted to the British Consulate in Stockholm. He realised, with an “intense emotional surge”, that he was free at last, and was flown back to Scotland on 8 September 1944.
Gordon Woodroofe’s escape was an incredible accomplishment, given that only 33 others, from a total of 10,000 RAF POWs, managed to achieve a ‘home run’. He later received the Military Medal for his efforts.
You can read all about Gordon’s daring escape in his autobiography, GeTaWay. Now out of print, there are limited numbers available for purchase from the Museum Shop.
Frank Cardwell collection
29 September 2020
We were thrilled to receive recently the personal collection of Pilot Officer Frank Cardwell, who served as a Navigator with RAF Bomber Command in World War Two. The collection, which was generously donated by his family, includes uniform items and insignia, personal effects, service documents, souvenirs, personal papers and photographs.
Pilot Officer Frank Cardwell served as a Navigator with RAF Bomber Command in World War Two. His first operational posting in July 1944 was with No. 44 (Rhodesia) Squadron, flying Lancasters. In November 1944 he joined No. 617 Squadron RAF, famous for its ‘Dambuster’ raids in 1943 and attacks on the German battleship Tirpitz in 1944. Frank took part in the Squadron’s last Tirpitz raid on 12 November 1944, when the ship was finally sunk.
Three standout items in the collection are Frank’s medal group, which includes the Artic Star awarded for serving on the Arctic Convoys north of the Arctic Circle (the only example of this medal in the Air Force Museum collection), the brown leather toy dog that went with him on flights as a good luck charm, and his Navigator’s log book which notably features an entry on the Tirpitz raid.
After returning to New Zealand in July 1945, Frank remained connected to Bomber Command, with a long involvement in groups such as No. 44 Squadron and No. 617 Squadron Associations. He passed away in 2014, aged 94.